How Do Hall Effect Current Sensors Work?

Hall effect current sensors are devices that can detect the presence of a magnetic field and convert it into an electrical signal. The operation of a Hall effect sensor is based on the principle discovered by Edwin Hall in 1879, which states that placing an electric current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field generates a voltage difference perpendicular to the current flow and the magnetic field.

A Hall effect sensor typically consists of a thin, rectangular piece of semiconductor material, such as gallium arsenide or indium arsenide, with a current-carrying conductor on one side and a voltage-measuring conductor on the other.

When applying a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the semiconductor, the electrons in the current-carrying conductor are deflected to one side due to the Lorentz force, resulting in an accumulation of charge on that side and a depletion of charge on the other side. It creates an electric field across the semiconductor, which generates a voltage difference between the two sides that the voltage-measuring conductor can measure.

Video Source

The magnitude of the voltage produced by a Hall effect sensor is proportional to the strength of the magnetic field and the current flowing through the conductor. By measuring the sensor’s voltage output, the magnetic field’s strength and polarity can be determined.

Hall effect current sensors offer advantages such as non-contact sensing and high accuracy, making them suitable for various industries, including automotive, industrial, and medical.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *